10/01/2010

Use of English: Phrasal Verbs & Idioms 1

abide by vt fus (keep to, adhere to) 遵守,忠於

"The government said it would abide by the constitution. But martial law makes Filipinos nervous, because President Ferdinand Marcos used it in the 1970s to establish a dictatorship."
"Violence in Mindanao: A martial plan?" The Economist. Dec 10 2009.

act (up)on vt fus (do something definite about) 奉行,根據…行事

"How much, and how often, should farmers water their crops? The invention of the automatic sprinkler gave farmers the power to act upon the answers to those questions."
"Monitor: Twinkle, twinkle, little laser" The Economist. Mar 5 2009.
"Pixar got the inspiration for this system from a surprising place—Toyota and its method of 'lean production'. For decades Toyota has solicited constant feedback from workers on its production lines to prevent flaws. Pixar wants to do the same with producing cartoon characters. This system of constant feedback is designed to bring problems to the surface before they mutate into crises, and to provide creative teams with a source of inspiration. Directors are not obliged to act on the feedback they receive from others, but when they do the results can be impressive."
"Schumpeter: Planning for the sequel." The Economist. Jun 17 2010.

add in vt sep (insert) 包括,加上

"Yet with all these caveats, the new government’s vision of a looser state, and its determination to reform virtually all the public services at once, is boldly outlined. Add in the even more daring plan to cut the fiscal deficit, and Britain is in for a breathless and convulsive few years."
"Radical Britain: The unlikely revolutionary." The Economist. Jun 17 2010.

add on vt sep (add as an extra or extras) 另外加上去

"Taxi drivers expect you to round up fares to the next dollar. You can add on a bit more, but occasionally a driver from the mainland will surprise you by refusing the additional money."
"Business Etiquette for Hong Kong and the Mainland." The International Herald Tribune. Dec 7 2010.

add up (1) vi (Math: total) 合計

"The leading for-profit colleges hope to survive by putting their own houses in order and by calling for new regulations that apply to higher education as a whole. And they make another, broader, claim. When the full cost of loans and subsidies is added up they are significantly cheaper for the taxpayer, per graduate, than public and non-profit institutions."
"For-profit higher education: Schools of hard knocks." The Economist. Jun 17 2010.

add up (2) vi (make sense) 不合情理

"At times, investors may be gullible and their memories can be limited. But they are sufficiently aware to see through stories that don’t add up."
"For Harrah’s I.P.O., Investors Are Wary." The New York Times. Nov 22 2010.

add up (3) vt sep (Literal: total) 合計

"While the travel expenses are small relative to overall fund assets, watchdog groups say they add up in a recession that has forced taxpayers to shoulder growing shortfalls."
"Bills Mount for Travel by Trustees of Pensions" The New York Times. Nov 20 2010.

add up (4) vt sep (Figurative: assess) 評估

"There comes a time when you start adding up all the pluses and minuses of your life. In my case I'd like to add up all the great tennis games I played and all of the great players I overcame with my now famous 'lob.'"
Art Buchwald, "Meanwhile: Goodbye, my friends. What a pleasure it has been!" The International Herald Tribune. Jan 18 2007.

add up to (1) vt fus (Math: amount to) 總計

"The environmental effects of the gulf spill remain largely unknown. But the number of lives disrupted is certainly in the thousands, if not the tens of thousands; the paychecks lost in industries like fishing add up to millions; and the ultimate cost will be counted in billions."
Justin Gillies, "Where Gulf Spill Might Place on the Roll of Disasters." The New York Times. Nov 3 2010.

add up to (2) vt fus (Figurative: signify, indicate) 意味着總而言之

"The company gets employees involved in reducing waste, sometimes by offering them bonuses. “Once you mobilize the entire work force, you get these hundreds of thousands of little improvements that add up to something significant,” he said."
Beth Gardiner, "Upcycling Evolves From Recycling", The New York Times. Nov 3 2010.

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